最終更新:2017-10-31 (火) 17:39:33 (18d)  

make はてなブックマークを見る
Top / make

ビルド作業を自動化するツール

http://www.gnu.org/software/make/

http://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/make.html

makeとは

Makefileと呼ばれるテキストファイルに必要なファイルと各ファイルのコンパイルコマンド、ファイル間の依存関係を記します。そして、“make”というコマンドを実行するだけで、自動的にコマンドを実行してコンパイルしてくれます。これだけではスクリプトと大差がないのですが、makeはMakefileに記された依存関係に基づいて更新されたファイルの内関連のあるものだけを更新することで、コンパイル時間を短くします。

makeは特定のプログラミング言語に依存したものではありません。C言語のソースファイルのコンパイルにも使えますし、Verilog HDLのシミュレーションにも使えますし、TeXコンパイルにも使えます。

パラメータ

-n

  • どういう処理を実行するか表示
  • --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
    • Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them.

-p

  • --print-data-base
    • Print the data base (rules and variable values) that results from reading the makefiles; then execute as usual or as otherwise specified.
    • This also prints the version information given by the -v switch (see below). To print the data base without trying to remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

-C

  • Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else.

-f

  • Use file as a makefile.

-j

  • 引き数無しで -j オプションが与えられた場合、 make は同時に実行できるジョブの数を制限しない。

メモ

  • Makefileを用意しなくてもhello.cだけでmake helloとするとビルドしてくれる

Makefile

検索順

  • ファイル名を指定しない場合は、GNUmakefile?makefile?Makefileの順に検索します。

引数

  • 何も指定せずに make を実行すると、make はその最終目標として Makefile の一番最初に書かれているターゲットを生成しようとする
  • マクロの定義をシェル引数からでもできる
    % make CC=gcc

デフォルトシンボル

  • CCProgram for compiling C programs; default ‘cc’.
    CXXProgram for compiling C++ programs; default ‘g++’.
    CPP?Program for running the C preprocessor, with results to standard output; default ‘$(CC) -E’.
    CFLAGSExtra flags to give to the C compiler.
    CXXFLAGSExtra flags to give to the C++ compiler.
    CPPFLAGSExtra flags to give to the C preprocessor and programs that use it (the C and Fortran compilers).
    LDFLAGSExtra flags to give to compilers when they are supposed to invoke the linker,‘ld’.

C言語

C++

デバッグ

make --debug

高速化

  • make -j<数値> - 同時に実行するジョブの数を指定

man

MAKE(1)                                                  LOCAL USER COMMANDS                                                 MAKE(1)



NAME
       make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs

SYNOPSIS
       make [ -f makefile ] [ options ] ... [ targets ] ...

WARNING
       This  man page is an extract of the documentation of GNU make.  It is updated only occasionally, because the GNU project does
       not use nroff.  For complete, current documentation, refer to the Info file make.info which is made from the  Texinfo  source
       file make.texi.

DESCRIPTION
       The  purpose  of  the  make  utility is to determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and
       issue the commands to recompile them.  The manual describes the GNU implementation of make,  which  was  written  by  Richard
       Stallman  and  Roland  McGrath, and is currently maintained by Paul Smith.  Our examples show C programs, since they are most
       common, but you can use make with any programming language whose compiler can be run with a shell command.  In fact, make  is
       not  limited  to  programs.   You  can use it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from others
       whenever the others change.

       To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the relationships among files in  your  pro‐
       gram, and the states the commands for updating each file.  In a program, typically the executable file is updated from object
       files, which are in turn made by compiling source files.

       Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell command:

              make

       suffices to perform all necessary recompilations.  The make program uses the makefile data  base  and  the  last-modification
       times of the files to decide which of the files need to be updated.  For each of those files, it issues the commands recorded
       in the data base.

       make executes commands in the makefile to update one or more target names, where name is  typically  a  program.   If  no  -f
       option is present, make will look for the makefiles GNUmakefile, makefile, and Makefile, in that order.

       Normally  you  should  call your makefile either makefile or Makefile.  (We recommend Makefile because it appears prominently
       near the beginning of a directory listing, right near other important files such as README.)  The first  name  checked,  GNU‐
       makefile,  is  not  recommended  for most makefiles.  You should use this name if you have a makefile that is specific to GNU
       make, and will not be understood by other versions of make.  If makefile is `-', the standard input is read.

       make updates a target if it depends on prerequisite files that have been modified since the target was last modified,  or  if
       the target does not exist.

OPTIONS
       -b, -m
            These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of make.

       -B, --always-make
            Unconditionally make all targets.

       -C dir, --directory=dir
            Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else.  If multiple -C options are specified, each
            is interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc.  This is typically used  with  recur‐
            sive invocations of make.

       -d   Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  The debugging information says which files are being con‐
            sidered for remaking, which file-times are being compared and with what results, which files actually need to be remade,
            which implicit rules are considered and which are applied---everything interesting about how make decides what to do.

       --debug[=FLAGS]
            Print  debugging  information in addition to normal processing.  If the FLAGS are omitted, then the behavior is the same
            as if -d was specified.  FLAGS may be a for all debugging output (same as using -d), b for basic debugging, v  for  more
            verbose  basic  debugging,  i  for  showing implicit rules, j for details on invocation of commands, and m for debugging
            while remaking makefiles.

       -e, --environment-overrides
            Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables from makefiles.

       -f file, --file=file, --makefile=FILE
            Use file as a makefile.

       -i, --ignore-errors
            Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

       -I dir, --include-dir=dir
            Specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles.  If several -I options are used to specify several  directo‐
            ries,  the  directories  are  searched in the order specified.  Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories
            given with -I flags may come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir.  This syntax is  allowed  for
            compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.

       -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
            Specifies  the  number  of  jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If there is more than one -j option, the last one is
            effective.  If the -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run  simulta‐
            neously.

       -k, --keep-going
            Continue  as  much  as  possible  after  an error.  While the target that failed, and those that depend on it, cannot be
            remade, the other dependencies of these targets can be processed all the same.

       -l [load], --load-average[=load]
            Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs running and  the  load  average  is  at
            least load (a floating-point number).  With no argument, removes a previous load limit.

       -L, --check-symlink-times
            Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.

       -n, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
            Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them.

       -o file, --old-file=file, --assume-old=file
            Do  not remake the file file even if it is older than its dependencies, and do not remake anything on account of changes
            in file.  Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are ignored.

       -p, --print-data-base
            Print the data base (rules and variable values) that results from reading the makefiles; then execute  as  usual  or  as
            otherwise  specified.   This  also prints the version information given by the -v switch (see below).  To print the data
            base without trying to remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

       -q, --question
            ``Question mode''.  Do not run any commands, or print anything; just return an exit status that is zero if the specified
            targets are already up to date, nonzero otherwise.

       -r, --no-builtin-rules
            Eliminate use of the built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out the default list of suffixes for suffix rules.

       -R, --no-builtin-variables
            Don't define any built-in variables.

       -s, --silent, --quiet
            Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.

       -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
            Cancel the effect of the -k option.  This is never necessary except in a recursive make where -k might be inherited from
            the top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set -k in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.

       -t, --touch
            Touch files (mark them up to date without really changing them) instead of running their commands.  This is used to pre‐
            tend that the commands were done, in order to fool future invocations of make.

       -v, --version
            Print the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a notice that there is no warranty.

       -w, --print-directory
            Print  a  message  containing  the working directory before and after other processing.  This may be useful for tracking
            down errors from complicated nests of recursive make commands.

       --no-print-directory
            Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.

       -W file, --what-if=file, --new-file=file, --assume-new=file
            Pretend that the target file has just been modified.  When used with the -n flag, this shows you what  would  happen  if
            you  were  to  modify  that file.  Without -n, it is almost the same as running a touch command on the given file before
            running make, except that the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

       --warn-undefined-variables
            Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.

EXIT STATUS
       GNU make exits with a status of zero if all makefiles were successfully parsed and no targets that were built failed.  A sta‐
       tus  of  one will be returned if the -q flag was used and make determines that a target needs to be rebuilt.  A status of two
       will be returned if any errors were encountered.

SEE ALSO
       The GNU Make Manual

BUGS
       See the chapter `Problems and Bugs' in The GNU Make Manual.

AUTHOR
       This manual page contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University.  It  has  been  reworked  by  Roland  McGrath.   Further
       updates contributed by Mike Frysinger.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 1992, 1993, 1996, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  This file is part of GNU make.

       GNU make is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as pub‐
       lished by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later version.

       GNU make is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the  implied  warranty  of
       MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You  should  have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with GNU make; see the file COPYING.  If not, write
       to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.



GNU                                                        22 August 1989                                                    MAKE(1)

関連ツール

Ruby

  • rake?

ビルド

Cygwin/パッケージ

  • 依存するパッケージ
    • libguile17?
    • libintl8?
    • _update-info-dir?
    • cygwin

参考